Die Monopoly-Geschichte beginnt im Jahre mit Elizabeth Magie. Erfahre mehr über die erste Monopoly Version und wie sie entstanden. Monopoly (englisch für „Monopol“) ist ein bekanntes US-amerikanisches Brettspiel. Ziel des Spiels ist es, ein Grundstücksimperium aufzubauen und alle. All Items (20). #; A; B; C; D; E; F; G; H; I; J; K; L; M; N; O; P; Q; R; S; T; U; V; W; X; Y; Z; Other. 1. 1. F.C. Köln Edition. B. Bayern Edition. Bielefeld Edition. Borussia.
Die Geschichte des Monopoly-SpielsAnti-Monopoly ist ein Brettspiel für zwei bis sechs Personen, das von dem US-amerikanischen Professor Ralph Anspach entwickelt wurde. Das Spiel erschien. - Monopoly Property Cards Template New Go Jail Card – Monopoly Wiki there is A G - Monopoly Property Cards Template New Go Jail Card. Pokémon Monopoly ist eine Pokémon-Variante des bekannten Brettspiels Monopoly Wikipedia pktorrentdownload.com, die im Jahr von Parker Brothers.
Monopoly Wiki Inhaltsverzeichnis VideoTop 10 Interesting FACTS About the Board Game MONOPOLY
Asking consumers directly is fruitless: consumers don't know, and to the extent they do they are reluctant to share that information with marketers.
The two main methods for determining willingness to buy are observation of personal characteristics and consumer actions.
As noted information about where a person lives postal codes , how the person dresses, what kind of car he or she drives, occupation, and income and spending patterns can be helpful in classifying.
Monopoly, besides, is a great enemy to good management. According to the standard model, in which a monopolist sets a single price for all consumers, the monopolist will sell a lesser quantity of goods at a higher price than would companies by perfect competition.
Because the monopolist ultimately forgoes transactions with consumers who value the product or service more than its price, monopoly pricing creates a deadweight loss referring to potential gains that went neither to the monopolist nor to consumers.
Deadweight loss is the cost to society because the market isn't in equilibrium, it is inefficient. Given the presence of this deadweight loss, the combined surplus or wealth for the monopolist and consumers is necessarily less than the total surplus obtained by consumers by perfect competition.
Where efficiency is defined by the total gains from trade, the monopoly setting is less efficient than perfect competition.
It is often argued that monopolies tend to become less efficient and less innovative over time, becoming "complacent", because they do not have to be efficient or innovative to compete in the marketplace.
Sometimes this very loss of psychological efficiency can increase a potential competitor's value enough to overcome market entry barriers, or provide incentive for research and investment into new alternatives.
The theory of contestable markets argues that in some circumstances private monopolies are forced to behave as if there were competition because of the risk of losing their monopoly to new entrants.
This is likely to happen when a market's barriers to entry are low. It might also be because of the availability in the longer term of substitutes in other markets.
For example, a canal monopoly, while worth a great deal during the late 18th century United Kingdom, was worth much less during the late 19th century because of the introduction of railways as a substitute.
Contrary to common misconception , monopolists do not try to sell items for the highest possible price, nor do they try to maximize profit per unit, but rather they try to maximize total profit.
A natural monopoly is an organization that experiences increasing returns to scale over the relevant range of output and relatively high fixed costs.
The relevant range of product demand is where the average cost curve is below the demand curve. Often, a natural monopoly is the outcome of an initial rivalry between several competitors.
An early market entrant that takes advantage of the cost structure and can expand rapidly can exclude smaller companies from entering and can drive or buy out other companies.
A natural monopoly suffers from the same inefficiencies as any other monopoly. Left to its own devices, a profit-seeking natural monopoly will produce where marginal revenue equals marginal costs.
Regulation of natural monopolies is problematic. The most frequently used methods dealing with natural monopolies are government regulations and public ownership.
Government regulation generally consists of regulatory commissions charged with the principal duty of setting prices.
To reduce prices and increase output, regulators often use average cost pricing. By average cost pricing, the price and quantity are determined by the intersection of the average cost curve and the demand curve.
Average-cost pricing is not perfect. Regulators must estimate average costs. Companies have a reduced incentive to lower costs. Regulation of this type has not been limited to natural monopolies.
By setting price equal to the intersection of the demand curve and the average total cost curve, the firm's output is allocatively inefficient as the price is less than the marginal cost which is the output quantity for a perfectly competitive and allocatively efficient market.
In , J. Mill was the first individual to describe monopolies with the adjective "natural". He used it interchangeably with "practical".
At the time, Mill gave the following examples of natural or practical monopolies: gas supply, water supply, roads, canals, and railways.
In his Social Economics  , Friedrich von Wieser demonstrated his view of the postal service as a natural monopoly: "In the face of [such] single-unit administration, the principle of competition becomes utterly abortive.
The parallel network of another postal organization, beside the one already functioning, would be economically absurd; enormous amounts of money for plant and management would have to be expended for no purpose whatever.
A government-granted monopoly also called a " de jure monopoly" is a form of coercive monopoly , in which a government grants exclusive privilege to a private individual or company to be the sole provider of a commodity.
Monopoly may be granted explicitly, as when potential competitors are excluded from the market by a specific law , or implicitly, such as when the requirements of an administrative regulation can only be fulfilled by a single market player, or through some other legal or procedural mechanism, such as patents , trademarks , and copyright.
A monopolist should shut down when price is less than average variable cost for every output level  — in other words where the demand curve is entirely below the average variable cost curve.
In an unregulated market, monopolies can potentially be ended by new competition, breakaway businesses, or consumers seeking alternatives.
In a regulated market, a government will often either regulate the monopoly, convert it into a publicly owned monopoly environment, or forcibly fragment it see Antitrust law and trust busting.
Public utilities , often being naturally efficient with only one operator and therefore less susceptible to efficient breakup, are often strongly regulated or publicly owned.
The law regulating dominance in the European Union is governed by Article of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union which aims at enhancing the consumer's welfare and also the efficiency of allocation of resources by protecting competition on the downstream market.
Competition law does not make merely having a monopoly illegal, but rather abusing the power a monopoly may confer, for instance through exclusionary practices i.
It may also be noted that it is illegal to try to obtain a monopoly, by practices of buying out the competition, or equal practices. If one occurs naturally, such as a competitor going out of business, or lack of competition, it is not illegal until such time as the monopoly holder abuses the power.
First it is necessary to determine whether a company is dominant, or whether it behaves "to an appreciable extent independently of its competitors, customers and ultimately of its consumer".
Establishing dominance is a two-stage test. The first thing to consider is market definition which is one of the crucial factors of the test.
As the definition of the market is of a matter of interchangeability, if the goods or services are regarded as interchangeable then they are within the same product market.
It is necessary to define it because some goods can only be supplied within a narrow area due to technical, practical or legal reasons and this may help to indicate which undertakings impose a competitive constraint on the other undertakings in question.
Since some goods are too expensive to transport where it might not be economic to sell them to distant markets in relation to their value, therefore the cost of transporting is a crucial factor here.
Other factors might be legal controls which restricts an undertaking in a Member States from exporting goods or services to another. Market definition may be difficult to measure but is important because if it is defined too broadly, the undertaking may be more likely to be found dominant and if it is defined too narrowly, the less likely that it will be found dominant.
As with collusive conduct, market shares are determined with reference to the particular market in which the company and product in question is sold.
It does not in itself determine whether an undertaking is dominant but work as an indicator of the states of the existing competition within the market.
It sums up the squares of the individual market shares of all of the competitors within the market. The lower the total, the less concentrated the market and the higher the total, the more concentrated the market.
By European Union law, very large market shares raise a presumption that a company is dominant, which may be rebuttable.
The lowest yet market share of a company considered "dominant" in the EU was If a company has a dominant position, then there is a special responsibility not to allow its conduct to impair competition on the common market however these will all falls away if it is not dominant.
When considering whether an undertaking is dominant, it involves a combination of factors. Each of them cannot be taken separately as if they are, they will not be as determinative as they are when they are combined together.
According to the Guidance, there are three more issues that must be examined. They are actual competitors that relates to the market position of the dominant undertaking and its competitors, potential competitors that concerns the expansion and entry and lastly the countervailing buyer power.
Market share may be a valuable source of information regarding the market structure and the market position when it comes to accessing it. The dynamics of the market and the extent to which the goods and services differentiated are relevant in this area.
It concerns with the competition that would come from other undertakings which are not yet operating in the market but will enter it in the future.
So, market shares may not be useful in accessing the competitive pressure that is exerted on an undertaking in this area. The potential entry by new firms and expansions by an undertaking must be taken into account,  therefore the barriers to entry and barriers to expansion is an important factor here.
Competitive constraints may not always come from actual or potential competitors. Sometimes, it may also come from powerful customers who have sufficient bargaining strength which come from its size or its commercial significance for a dominant firm.
There are three main types of abuses which are exploitative abuse, exclusionary abuse and single market abuse.
It arises when a monopolist has such significant market power that it can restrict its output while increasing the price above the competitive level without losing customers.
This is most concerned about by the Commissions because it is capable of causing long- term consumer damage and is more likely to prevent the development of competition.
It arises when a dominant undertaking carrying out excess pricing which would not only have an exploitative effect but also prevent parallel imports and limits intra- brand competition.
Despite wide agreement that the above constitute abusive practices, there is some debate about whether there needs to be a causal connection between the dominant position of a company and its actual abusive conduct.
Furthermore, there has been some consideration of what happens when a company merely attempts to abuse its dominant position. Rich Uncle Pennybags.
Retrieved December 12, Ian Madrigal, the person who identified themselves as the Monopoly Man, said the act is a protest of the internet company's alleged inability to self-regulate when it comes to protecting consumer data.
ORG summer Vol. Page Monopoly" by Emily F. Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Jason Bunn. Ikuo Hyakuta. Joost van Orten. Yutaka Okada.
Antonio Zafra Fernandez. Las Vegas. Rue Grande Dinant F Diestsestraat Leuven F Noordstation Gare du Nord F Steenstraat Brugge F Place du Monument Spa F Kapellestraat Oostende F Players collect rent from their opponents, with the goal being to drive them into bankruptcy.
Money can also be gained or lost through Chance and Community Chest cards, and tax squares; players can end up in jail, which they cannot move from until they have met one of several conditions.
The game has numerous house rules , and hundreds of different editions exist, as well as many spin-offs and related media.
Monopoly has become a part of international popular culture, having been licensed locally in more than countries and printed in more than 37 languages.
Monopoly is derived from The Landlord's Game created by Lizzie Magie in the United States in as a way to demonstrate that an economy which rewards wealth creation is better than one where monopolists work under few constraints,  and to promote the economic theories of Henry George —in particular his ideas about taxation.
When Monopoly was first published by Parker Brothers in , it did not include the less capitalistic taxation rule, which resulted in a more competitive game.
Parker Brothers was eventually absorbed into Hasbro in The game is named after the economic concept of monopoly —the domination of a market by a single entity.
The history of Monopoly can be traced back to ,  when American anti-monopolist Lizzie Magie created a game which she hoped would explain the single tax theory of Henry George.
It was intended as an educational tool to illustrate the negative aspects of concentrating land in private monopolies.
She took out a patent in Her game, The Landlord's Game , was self-published, beginning in Magie created two sets of rules: an anti-monopolist set in which all were rewarded when wealth was created, and a monopolist set in which the goal was to create monopolies and crush opponents.
Several variant board games, based on her concept, were developed from through the s; they involved both the process of buying land for its development and the sale of any undeveloped property.
Cardboard houses were added and rents increased as they were added to a property. Magie patented the game again in According to an advertisement placed in The Christian Science Monitor , Charles Todd of Philadelphia recalled the day in when his childhood friend, Esther Jones, and her husband Charles Darrow came to their house for dinner.
After the meal, the Todds introduced Darrow to The Landlord's Game , which they then played several times. The game was entirely new to Darrow, and he asked the Todds for a written set of the rules.
After that night, Darrow went on to utilize this and distribute the game himself as Monopoly. Parker Brothers bought the game's copyrights from Darrow.
Parker Brothers began marketing the game on November 5, Alexander contributed the design. In , Parker Brothers began licensing the game for sale outside the United States.
They were distributed to prisoners by fake charity organizations created by the British Secret Service.
In the Nazi-occupied Netherlands, the German government and its collaborators were displeased with Dutch people using Monopoly Game sets with American or British locales, and developed a version with Dutch locations.
Since that version had in itself no specific pro-Nazi elements, it continued in use after the war, and formed the base for Monopoly games used in the Netherlands up to the present.
Economics professor Ralph Anspach published Anti-Monopoly in , and was sued for trademark infringement by Parker Brothers in The case went to trial in Anspach won on appeals in , as the 9th Circuit Court determined that the trademark Monopoly was generic and therefore unenforceable.
This decision was overturned by the passage of Public Law 98— in However, Anti-Monopoly was exempted from the law and Anspach later reached a settlement with Hasbro and markets his game under license from them.
The research that Anspach conducted during the course of the litigation was what helped bring the game's history before Charles Darrow into the spotlight.
In , Hasbro acquired Parker Bros. Hasbro moved to create and license many other versions of Monopoly and sought public input in varying the game.
National Championship. In , the Speed Die was added to all regular Monopoly set. M has the five-star, room hotel, then under construction, located at the M Bukit Bintang in Kuala Lumpur and would have a s Gatsby feel.
M's Sirocco Group would manage the hotel when it opens in There have since been some changes to the board.
Monopoly character then known as "Rich Uncle Pennybags" were added in that same time-frame. Traditionally, the Community Chest cards were yellow although they were sometimes printed on blue stock with no decoration or text on the back; the Chance cards were orange with no text or decoration on the back.
Hasbro commissioned a major graphic redesign to the U. Standard Edition of the game in along with some minor revisions.
Among the changes: the colors of Mediterranean and Baltic Avenues changed from purple to brown, and the colors of the GO square changed from red to black.
All the Chance and Community Chest cards received a graphic upgrade in as part of the graphic refresh of the game.
Monopoly's classic line illustration was also now usually replaced by renderings of a 3D Mr. Monopoly model. The backs of the cards have their respective symbols, with Community Chest cards in blue, and Chance cards in orange.
In the U. Charles Place no longer exists, as the Showboat Atlantic City was developed where it once ran. Marvin Gardens, the farthest yellow property, is a misspelling of its actual name, Marven Gardens.
It was passed on when their homemade Monopoly board was copied by Darrow and then by Parker Brothers. A booklet included with the reprinted edition states that the four railroads that served Atlantic City in the mids were the Jersey Central , the Seashore Lines , the Reading Railroad , and the Pennsylvania Railroad.
There is a tunnel in Philadelphia where track to the south was B. The Central of N. In the s, John Waddington Ltd. Waddingtons was a printing company in Leeds that had begun to branch out into packaging and the production of playing cards.
In a similar fashion, Parker Brothers sent over a copy of Monopoly to Waddingtons early in before the game had been put into production in the United States.
Victor Watson, the managing director of Waddingtons, gave the game to his son Norman, head of the card games division, to test over the weekend.
Watson felt that for the game to be a success in the United Kingdom, the American locations would have to be replaced, so Victor and his secretary, Marjory Phillips, went to London to scout out locations.
It had been a coaching inn that stood on the Great North Road. By the s, the inn had become a J. Lyons and Co.
Some accounts say that Marjory and Victor met at the Angel to discuss the selection and celebrated the fact by including it on the Monopoly board.
In , a plaque commemorating the naming was unveiled at the site by Victor Watson's grandson, who is also named Victor. During World War II, the British Secret Service contacted Waddington who could also print on silk to make Monopoly sets that included escape maps, money, a compass and file, all hidden in copies of the game sent by fake POW relief charities to prisoners of war.
The standard British board, produced by Waddingtons, was for many years the version most familiar to people in countries in the Commonwealth except Canada, where the U.
In , Winning Moves procured the Monopoly license from Hasbro and created new UK city and regional editions  with sponsored squares.
Initially, in December , the game was sold in just a few W H Smith stores, but demand was high, with almost fifty thousand games shipped in the four weeks leading to Christmas.
Winning Moves still produces new city and regional editions annually. The original income tax choice from the s U. In , the U. Beginning in the U.
The success of the first Here and Now editions prompted Hasbro U. Game play is further changed with bus tickets allowing non-dice-roll movement along one side of the board , a speed die itself adopted into variants of the Atlantic City standard edition ; see below , skyscrapers after houses and hotels , and train depots that can be placed on the Railroad spaces.
This edition was adapted for the U. In September , the U. This edition features top landmarks across the U. Monetary values are multiplied by 10, e.
The board uses the traditional U. However, a similar edition of Monopoly , the Electronic Banking edition, does feature an electronic banking unit and bank cards, as well as a different set of tokens.
No other state is represented by more than one city not including the airports. One landmark, Texas Stadium , has been demolished and no longer exists.
Another landmark, Jacobs Field, still exists, but was renamed Progressive Field in In , in honor of the game's 80th birthday, Hasbro held an online vote to determine which cities would make it into an updated version of Here and Now.
This second edition is more a spin-off as the winning condition has changed to completing a passport instead of bankrupting opponents.
Community Chest is replaced with Here and Now cards, while the Here and Now space replaced the railroads. Houses and hotels have been removed.
Hasbro released a World edition with the top voted cities from all around the world, as well as at least a Here and Now edition with the voted-on U.
Monopoly Empire has uniquely branded tokens and places based on popular brands. Instead of buying properties, players buy popular brands one by one and slide their billboards onto their Empire towers.
Instead of building houses and hotels, players collect rent from their rivals based on their tower height.
The first player to fill their tower with billboards wins. This version of Monopoly contains an extra eight "golden" tokens.
That includes a penguin, a television, a race car, a Mr. Monopoly emoji, a rubber duck, a watch, a wheel and a bunny slipper. During the game, players travel around the gameboard buying properties and collecting rent.
If they land on a Chance space, or roll the Chance icon on a die, they can spin the Chance spinner to try to make more money.
Players may hit the "Jackpot", go bankrupt, or be sent to Jail. The player who has the most cash when the bank crashes wins. In this version, there is no cash.
The Monopoly Ultimate Banking game features an electronic ultimate banking piece with touch technology. Players can buy properties instantly and set rents by tapping.
Each player has a bankcard and their cash is tracked by the Ultimate Banking unit. It can scan the game's property cards and boost or crash the market.
Event cards and Location spaces replace Chance and Community Chest cards. On an Event Space, rents may be raised or lowered, a player may earn or lose money, or someone could be sent to Jail.
Location Spaces allow players to pay and move to any property space on the gameboard. In this version, there are no cash or cards. Voice Banking allows the player to respond by voice to the Top Hat.
The hat responds by purchasing properties, paying rent, and making buildings. Monopoly is a version of the game released in , in which female players earn more than male players.
Monopoly Deal is a card game derived from the board-game Monopoly introduced in , produced and sold by Cartamundi under a license from Hasbro.
Players attempt to collect three complete sets of cards representing the properties from the original board game, either by playing them directly, stealing them from other players, swapping cards with other players, or collecting them as rent for other properties they already own.
The cards in the card deck represent properties and wild cards, various denominations of Monopoly money used to pay rent, and special action cards which can either be played for their effects or banked as money instead.
Monopoly Wiki is about the Parker Brothers board game, including: fun facts, history of the game, and other things that you won't find anywhere else concerning Monopoly.
The character locked behind the bars is called Jake the Jailbird. Officer Edgar Mallory sent him to jail. Before then, he was called "Rich Uncle Pennybags".
Here is a video of two players simulating such a game in just 13 seconds, with text description of the plays.
Categories :. Fan Feed 0 Main Page 1 Jail.